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These austenitic stainless steels are provided in the mill annealed condition ready for use. Heat treatment may be necessary during or after fabrication to remove the effects of cold forming or to dissolve precipitated chromium carbides resulting from thermal exposures.
What is 316l stainless steel used for?
It is commonly used in chemical and petrochemical industry, in food processing, pharmaceutical equipment, medical devices, in potable water, wastewater treatment, in marine applications and architectural applications near the seashore or in urban areas.
The two grades of stainless steel most referenced in relation to outdoor environments are 304 and 316L, also known as marine-grade stainless steel. Their numbers are determined by their alloy composition. Unlike the active metals mentioned above, stainless steel is referred to as passive because it contains other metals including chromium. For a material to be considered stainless steel, at least 10.5% of the make-up must be chromium.
Compared to other types of stainless steel, it is usually limited to use of relatively thin sections, due to of a lack of toughness in welds. Although, contractors use ferritic stainless steel for a wide range of applications that do not require welding. Additionally, you cannot harden ferritic steel with heat treatment.But you can use it in sea water or other aggressive conditions when you include an addition of Molybdenum.
- Their numbers are determined by their alloy composition.
- Unlike the active metals mentioned above, stainless steel is referred to as passive because it contains other metals including chromium.
- The two grades of stainless steel most referenced in relation to outdoor environments are 304 and 316L, also known as marine-grade stainless steel.
These alloys also offer higher creep, stress-to-rupture and tensile strength at elevated temperature. Types 316 and 316L generally contain 2 to 3% molybdenum for improved corrosion resistance.
For the Type 316 alloy the solution anneal is accomplished by heating in the 1900 to 2150° F (1040 to 1175° C) temperature range followed by air cooling or a water quench, depending on section thickness. Cooling should be sufficiently rapid through the ° F ( ° C) range to avoid reprecipitation of chromium carbides and provide optimum corrosion resistance. In every case, the metal should be cooled from the annealing temperature to black heat in less than three minutes. In addition to excellent corrosion resistance and strength properties, Types 316 and 316L alloys also provide the excellent fabricability and formability which are typical of the austenitic stainless steels.
What is INOX 316l?
INOX 316L is recommended for austenitic stainless steels with the Mo addition, with a low carbon content as well as stabilised Nb and Ti if the operating temperature does not exceed 400°C. Very good resistance to general and intergranular corrosion in the aggressive environment, such as dilute hot acids.
Additional alloys typically include nickel, titanium, aluminum, copper, nitrogen, phosphorous, selenium and molybdenum. The key difference between the 304 and the 316L is the addition of molybdenum in the 316L. It is the molybdenum that enhances corrosion resistance in environments rich in salt air and chloride – giving 316L the moniker of “marine grade” stainless steel. Based on Chromium with small quantities of Carbon, ferritic stainless steelhas a similar microstructure to both carbon and low alloy steels.
Ferritic stainless steel is also magnetic, but not as formable as austenitic stainless steel for example. On the other hand, steel workers often choose ferritic stainless steel because of its resistance to stress corrosion cracking.